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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 63-109

Online since Wednesday, January 12, 2022

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Assessing sleep hygiene among Saudi community during COVID-19 pandemic p. 63
Hasan Saeed Alamri
Introduction: The mental health of the general public is significantly affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aims to evaluate sleep hygiene during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general Saudi population. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted to fulfil the study aim, and an electronic structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a self-rated questionnaire, was used to assess sleep hygiene over a month, including the quality of sleep and sleep disturbances. A total of 1597 participants completed the survey, among which 871 (54.5%) were males. The age of participants ranged between 18 and 75 years. Results: The results showed that >30 min was required for 28.5% of the participants to fall asleep since last month. The sleep efficacy was <75% among 17.9% of the study participants, and 17.9% sleep for <7 h at night. The total PSQI score ranged from 0 to 20 points with a mean score of 5.8 ± 3.4. Nearly one out of each four participants had poor sleep quality, and about one out of each five participants had to take medication to fall asleep. Conclusion: Therefore, it is concluded that changes associated with lifestyle change COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown inversely affected public mental health and sleep hygiene.
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Residency and fellowship training programs in the United States of America: A cross-sectional survey of Saudi medical graduates p. 70
Hanan Jaber Al-Gethami, Hosam Al-Jehani, Samar AL-Saggaf, Abdulrazag Ajlan
Background: International medical graduates (IMGs) who study abroad face multiple challenges and more significant discrimination compared to that experienced by other graduates. These obstacles take different forms and occur in multiple stages. Furthermore, adaptation to a new culture causes several challenges for them, affecting their training and patient care. Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the personal experiences of Saudi IMGs and to describe the challenges they encounter during their residency and fellowship training programs in the United States of America. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted online in 2013. Participants included 230 Saudi IMGs enrolled in residency or fellowship training programs in the United States of America. Results: The majority of the respondents were males and strongly disagreed that lack of English language proficiency was a barrier to learning. High disagreement on discriminatory criticism was most common in postgraduate year 5 (R5) and higher levels (44.8%). Most participants reported positive experiences involving the learning environment. Moreover, some participants reported that they did not find it difficult to perform their religious activities. Total 43.4% of the participants reported equality of treatment regarding administrative responsibilities. However, subgroup analysis showed that women's experiences were less favorable than those observed in the male population. Conclusions: Results suggested that Saudi IMGs had an overall positive experience and faced minor barriers while studying in the United States of America. However, subgroup analysis showed that women's experiences were less positive relative to men.
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Reliability of multiple pour between two classes of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials: A preliminary stereomicroscopic study p. 78
Mohammed E Sayed, Bandar Mohammed Abdullah AL-Makramani, Fuad Ateik Al-Sanabani, Fawzia Ibraheem Shaabi
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and dimensional stability of casts made from regular set alginate alternative (AA) and monophase additional silicone (MAS) impression materials following multiple pours. Materials and Methods: A hard typodont master cast with index holes was used. A total of 20 impressions were made using a modified perforated metal tray with 10 impressions of each material. Each impression was poured four times with type IV die stone with a total of 80 stone casts (40 for each material). The horizontal anterior–posterior (HAP), horizontal cross-arch (HCA), and vertical distances were measured in the recovered stone casts using a stereomicroscope with an accuracy of 0.001 mm. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD post hoc test (P < 0.05). Results: The dimensions on the typodont master cast and stone casts were significantly different (P < 0.001), except for the first pour from MAS (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the dimensions of the stone casts made from the AA and MAS impression materials among the four pour groups (P < 0.001), with exception of MAS-based casts between first pour and second pour groups at HAP and HCA dimensions. Pairwise comparisons showed statistically significant difference between the two impression materials at all measurement locations, with only one exception of HAP measurements for second-poured casts. Conclusion: A clinically acceptable casts can be made by pouring AA and MAS impressions twice. In addition, the third and fourth pours were accurate in the AA group when compared to MAS group. Clinical Significance: According the knowledge of the authors, this study is the first to evaluate the predictability of re-pouring alginate alternative impression material and compare to a standard polyvinyl siloxane impression material such as monophase. Therefore, the statement of clinical significance in the abstract will help the dentists to realize the potential uses for alginate alternative impression material and recommendations of this study.
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Filariasis: A major potential imported parasitic disease in Najran District of Saudi Arabia p. 85
Ahmed Saif, Mohammed Abdulrahman Alshahrani, Ahmad A Alshehri, Basim A Othman, Mosa M Bahnass, Mutaib M Mashraqi, Gaffar Sarwar Zaman, Yasser Alraey, Aymen M Madkhali
Introduction: Expatriate workers usually contribute to the origination of some infectious diseases in the countries they reside. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze available information on filariasis imported into Najran, Saudi Arabia, by expatriate workers. Methodology: Serum (n = 497) were acquired from expatriate workers of both genders from different nationalities and various ages and also from randomly chosen parts and at different time periods of Najran. The serum samples were stored in a deep freezer at a temperature of − 65°C until utilized for the serological diagnosis of filariasis by using filariasis immunoglobulin G/immunoglobulin M (IgG/IgM) combo rapid test and human filariasis antibody (IgG4) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Based on IgG/IgM rapid test, the prevalence of filariasis IgG was 3.8% (19 out of 497), whereas IgG4 ELISA showed that the prevalence of filariasis was 10.9% (10 out of 92). The highest prevalence of filariasis occurred in Indian workers, in adulthood (30–49 years), and in male workers. There was no significant agreement in results between IgG/IgM rapid test and ELISA. The percentage specificity of IgG/IgM rapid test, relative to filariasis IgG4 ELISA was 80.5%. Conclusions: The possibility of health hazard due to imported filariasis and preeminently the initiation of a novel carrier focal point of the disease are likely to relied upon the abundance of carriers of microfilaria and the density of vector mosquitoes who feed on the carriers. Furthermore, the results of this study underscore the need for screening and therapeutic strategies that guarantee the control and prevention of parasitic infectious diseases.
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A cross-sectional study based on the assessment of the radiation dose for medical radiation workers p. 93
Ali Aldhebaib, Oinam Gokulchandra Singh, Fayaz Ul Haq, Saleh Talal Alqurbani, Abdullah Ibrahim Barakheel Albarkheel, Ahmed Alshamrani, Azzam Omar Alnuwaiser, Mohammed Abdullah Alsumykhi, Ibrahem Ahmad Alhenaki, Jayachandran Vetrayan
Background: A monitoring for radiological technologists and radiation workers must be implemented to ensure the radiation safety. Aims: The aim of our study was to measure the occupational radiation dose for medical workers from the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Nuclear Medicine, Dental Services, Endoscopy, and Surgery at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted at KAMC, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Across-sectional study and a suitably and structured questionnaire was adapted from the previous similar studies and monitored radiation doses designed in line with the study's objectives were collected among the different medical workers. A total of 223 medical radiation workers were involved in this study, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: It is noted that the diagnostic radiology department recorded the highest value of effective dose followed by cardiac catheterization laboratory and nuclear medicine and so on. The measured amount of effective dose for diagnostic radiology, cardiac catheterization laboratory, nuclear medicine, dental services, endoscopy, and surgery at KAMC was found to be 14.35, 5.23, 4.56, 3.88, 3.52, and 1.87 mSv, respectively. Conclusions: This study provide an evidence that the occupational radiation dose for all the monitored departments at KAMC are well below the international recommended dose limit (20 mSv).
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Reliability of repour of varying thickness alginate impression following extended storage time intervals p. 100
Mohammed E Sayed, Amit Porwal, Ahlam Alhazmi, Buthina Alaki, Mahasin Alnemi
Background: Obtaining multiple casts from an impression is desirable for the completion of numerous procedures for a patient. Recent literature on newly introduced extended-pour alginates reveals promising results for delayed pouring. However, literature on multiple pouring of impressions and the effects of impression thickness and storage time is not available. Subjects and Methods: Conventional and extended-pour alginates of various thicknesses (2, 4, and 6 mm) were evaluated for linear dimensional changes in both the intra-abutment and inter-abutment distances. Casts were poured twice with the time difference between the pours being 45 min; the storage time, however, was varied (15 min, 1 h, and 1, 3, and 7 days). The intra-abutment and inter-abutment measurements were compared with those of the standard metal die. Results: Compared with that of the metal die, the casts poured with 6 mm thickness of the impression material showed better accuracy between the first and the second pours and also revealed smaller statistical differences. Further, Cavex performed better than Major and GC brands. Conclusions: The dimensional stability of different alginate materials vary with thickness, storage time, and multiple pouring in both conventional and extended-pour alginates. Shorter storage time and greater thickness of the impression material are preferred when the same impression has to be poured twice. Clinical Significance: Alginate impressions can be poured twice, if made in adequate thickness and stored for short storage time, to generate additional set of accurate casts that aid in documentation, diagnostic and treatment procedures.
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Loin pain hematuria syndrome – A case report of a challenging diagnosis for clinicians p. 107
Hussam Haider, Haider Ali Omar, Javed Iqbal Wani, Shahid Aziz
Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a rare syndrome of loin pain associated with hematuria, which could be either gross or microscopic in nature. The condition causes severe discomfort for patients and can lead to many limitations in activities of daily life. As such, no primary kidney pathology has been associated with this syndrome which makes it a unique entity, to be diagnosed after exclusion of secondary causes of these symptoms. The symptom complex of Loin pain hematuria has been described classically presenting in young females in their third decade and is known to have spontaneous remissions in almost half of the patients, while as rest of the patients continue to have recurrent episodes of pain and hematuria. A high index of suspicion needs to be developed by treating physician in a patient with recurrent loin pain associated with/out hematuria. We present a patient with a similar clinical course where the diagnosis of LPHS was made on clinical grounds after excluding secondary causes of her symptoms.
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